Historical Movement of the Piqua Shawnee Tribe

The Piqua Shawnee's history is full of migrations from their homelands due to conflicts with other Indian tribes and American settlement. In some cases, the migrations were necessary to escape devastation by diseases such as scarlet fever and flu brought in by European settlers.

Before the 1600s, the Piqua Shawnee tribe lived in the Ohio Valley area. During the first part of the Beaver Wars (from 1630-1700) the tribe moved from the areas. It is thought the migration was due to hostility from the Iroquois. However, some historians link the migration to wars between the Shawnees at http://aiac.state.al.us/tribes_PiquaShawnee.aspx with the Neutrals and Erie.

By 1656, the Iroquois had expanded, conquered and assimilated their rivals. The only tribe that was not under the Iroquois was the Susquehannock. The Iroquois were also on the process of moving the Algonquin tribes from the lower Michigan and Ohio Valley. Most of the tribes moved ended up as refugees in Wisconsin. However, some Shawnee tribes were able to resist the Iroquois invasion for years by forming alliances with the Susquehannock.

In 1685, the western Iroquois (Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca) attacked the Susquehannock in what would be the last major conflict between the two tribes. The conflict lasted until 1675. However, the Shawnee got out of the conflict by the late 1660s as they lacked the firearms to battle with the Iroquois. Unlike the other refugees that retreated enmass to Wisconsin, the Shawnees dispersed into four groups. Learn more about Shawnee at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawnee .

Two of the Piqua Shawnee tribes move south towards Cherokee in eastern Tennessee. While the Shawnee and Cherokee had in the past had good relationships, the Cherokee had already started having problems with the Iroquois. Therefore, they only allow one Shawnee group (the Kispoko and Chillicothe) to settle in the Cumberland Basin. This was a strategic move by the Cherokee to protect themselves against their traditional enemies, the Chickasaw, by using the Shawnee tribes as a buffer. In the 1670s, the French started exploring the Cumberland River and met the Shawnees in the area. The French had been told that the Shawnee lived in Ohio.

The second Shawnee group at https://www.britannica.com/topic/Shawnee-people (the Hathawekela) was granted permission by the Cherokee to cross to the Appalachians. As expected, this was also a strategic move by the Cherokee to protect themselves against their tradition enemies of the east; the Catawba. The Shawnees settled on the Savannah River in South Carolina.

The above is a history of the movement of the Piqua Shawnee tribe.